For the final paper incorporating the research previously posted on this blog, please see here.
Archive for the ‘Housing Policy’ Category
This article was written by Janice E. Perlman and covers Rio de Janerio favelas from 1968-2005. The author talks about the dictatorship period in which she conducted the beginning of her research. The fear of eradication policies during this time was very real for the favela population and now she outlines that the fear has been replaced. The fear has been replaced by the fear of being killed in the war that is going on between the police and drug traffickers. The article discusses the violence, deception of democracy, public policy, and the divide between the population of Rio. Janice Perlman discusses the history of eradication and prevalence of stigma associated with those who live in the favelas. She notes that there has been a replacement of the old ideas that the favela dwellers were separate from the city and that they had become very integrated into it. The degree of inequality that exists is still a great challenge along with the growth of favela violence due the increased drug trade.
UN projections indicate that virtually all of the population growth in the world over the next 25 years will be in the cities of the developing countries.
For the full text see: http://filmscreen.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/perlman_2005_flavela.pdf
Belo Horizonte is the largest city in Minas Gerais with a population of 5.4 million. Belo Horizonte has been the setting for social policy changes, such as the regularization of its favela community instead of expulsion. This article discusses the land regularization of favelas in Belo Horizonte and the ‘broad repercussions’ that take place. Since the 1980s Belo Horizonte has hosted the PRO-FAVELA-Program Municipal de Regularizacao de Favelas. The legislation associated with the PRO-FAVELA- program is a progressive step towards recognizing the property rights of favela dwellers. According to SMP in 1993 there was an estimated 600,000 people living in Belo Horizontes Favelas. The pro favela policies show a distinct change in the way favelas have been viewed and are the result of favela group movements. After the 1988 constitution was implemented there was more legislation about the expropriation of land, and adverse possession. The Pro-Favela laws specifically in Bel Horizonte recognized the creation of a special sector (SE-4), and then was eventually included in municipal zoning. The Pro-Favela legislation recognized rights to land tenure along with accentuating the constitutional decision of recognizing property as a social function.
For more information see: http://sls.sagepub.com/content/2/2/211.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
The Favela-Bairro program was a municipality project undertaken by Rio de Janeiro.The project expressed direct interest in urbanizing the favela population and integration them into the formal city. The project took place in the 1990s and was implemented in two stages. The first stage took place in 1994, and the second stage took place in 2000. 38 favelas were the targets of this project. Rios attempts to address their population living in informal settlements has been matched with a large increase of favela dwellers. From 7% in 1950 to 20% by the year 2000. Medium sized communities ( 500 to 2,500 households) within the 38 selected favelas received an estimated expenditure of 3,500 dollars per family. The intervened communities there was an increase in garbage and sewage services, but with the lack of data and census information on the quality of life before implementing the program it was difficult to measure the impact and benefits of the programs.
To see the full report:
Brazil has ‘managed’ its Favela population in Rio de Janeiro from 1972 to 1976 in very similar practices that compare to today’s. Eradication and removal of the physical existence of the Favelas and its population was practiced by Rio de Janeiro. Rio is home to 11.2 million and there are over 600 different Favelas within this city and outskirts. The paper reviews the public policy practiced by the state under dictatorship from 72-76. Favelas were removed and relocated to “embryo houses’ and apartments outside the city. The idea was to eliminate and take advantage of the high price of land in the occupied areas. This program was also accompanied with access to a housing finance system. The BNH or National Housing Bank provided served as an agent of the Housing Finance System. Ultimately the program offered homes to favela dwellers charging the new urban residents rents that were originally 25% of family income then reduced to 19%. The policy did not take into account the fact that removal of the favelados to the periphery wouldn’t allow for the people to meet the economic burden. Being removed meant being removed from familiar sources of work and odd jobs. The program ended with massive default on an average of 74%. The favelas were removed (from the south zone where land prices were high) and the population was met with yet again economic difficulty with no real address of the core issue of poverty, access to wealth.
To read the full article visit: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2502876