Urban reform in Brazil has been recently supported by the constitution of 1988. The ratificatin of a new constitution has created legal presidence and expansion upon the social side of policy in Brazil. The social, urban, and environmental problmes that have accumulated over decades of rapid urbanization and goverment neglect is a fast moving volatile situation in which deserves delicate and dynamic programs to help counteract. The 1988 Constitution recognizes:
- The autonomy of municpal government
- The democratic management of Cities
- The social right to housing
- The right to the regularization of consolidated informal settlements
- The social function of urban property
- The need to combat land and property speculation in urban areas.
Policy that seeks to reverse the negative effects attributed to lack of infrastructure must also seek to create and implement long term social apparatusses with the support of the government at all levels. Within Brazil we see the extreme example of social innequality and physcial segregation of the favelas and urbanized city. The articel discusses the importance of the 2001 City Statute that preceeded the 1988 consitution. The 2001 statute provided that legal framework for particpatory movments at the government and municipal levels. The City Statue created the Ministry of Cities that consists of stakeholders, also the statute elaborated on the social function of property and the.
The ministry cities consists of an Executive Secretariat that resides over four national secretrariats; housing, environmental sanitation, public transportation, and mobility, and land and urban programmes. The four secretariats are involved in negotiation with the national congress to promote legal framework. Two important initatives are The national Programme to support Sustainable Urban Land Regularization and the National Campaign for Participatory Municipal Master Plans.
The National Program to Support Sustainable Urban Land Regularization:
- Combines intervention, articulation and mobilization strategies-legal financial, urban planning and political
- Strengthening partnership with NGOs and Social movements, institutions reperesenting land registrars, judges and prosecutors.
- Education “kits” have been distributed, including step-by-step manuals.
- A virtual network sends daily messages to some 10,000 people and insitutions all over Brazil.
To read the complete artice see: http://web.mit.edu/SPURS/www/events/seminarpaper/Fernandes.pdf